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Safeguarding Creativity: A Guide to Copyright Laws in Egypt

In the modern digital age, where content can be shared and accessed globally within seconds, understanding the intricacies of copyright law is crucial and, sometimes, consequential. Egypt, with its burgeoning creative industry, is no exception. This article outlines steps to prevent copyright infringement, emphasizing considerations and consequences under copyright laws in Egypt.

What is Copyright Infringement?

Copyright infringement occurs when a copyrighted work is reproduced, distributed, performed, publicly displayed, or made into a derivative work without the permission of the copyright holder. This can include anything from music, books, and videos to software, graphics, and architectural designs.

Identifying Copyright Infringement in Egypt:

  • Understanding Copyright Laws: In Egypt, copyright protection is governed by Law No. 82 of 2002. This law protects authors’ rights over their literary, artistic, and scientific works, including books, articles, photographs, music, and films, from the moment of creation.
  • Steps to Identify Infringement: The process involves determining if a work is protected, assessing if the alleged infringer has used the work beyond the scope of allowed uses or exceptions, and comparing the original work with the alleged infringing work to establish substantial similarity.

What Egyptian Courts Consider as Copyright Infringement:

  • Unauthorized Use: Utilizing the work without obtaining permission from the copyright holder, especially for commercial purposes.
  • Substantial Similarity: If the infringing work is substantially similar to the copyrighted work in its expression, not just in idea.
  • Public Display and Distribution: Displaying, distributing, or selling the copyrighted work publicly without permission.

How to Avoid Copyright Infringement:

  • Seek Permissions: Always obtain proper licenses or permissions before using someone else’s copyrighted work.
  • Understand Fair Use: Be aware of the ‘fair use’ exceptions where copyright law allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission.
  • Use Original Work: Encourage and invest in creating original content and understand the difference between inspiration and copying.

Consequences of Copyright Infringement under Egyptian Law:

Under Egyptian law, the repercussions for copyright infringement are designed to protect the rights of the copyright owners while deterring potential violators. These consequences range from civil remedies to criminal sanctions, reflecting the seriousness with which intellectual property rights are regarded.

Civil Penalties :

Civil penalties primarily involve compensatory damages awarded to the copyright owner. These damages are calculated based on the actual losses incurred, which can include lost profits or the value of the infringed property. The court may also consider any profits made by the infringer from the unauthorized use. In some cases, statutory damages may be imposed, where a fixed amount is awarded as compensation. Additionally, the court may order the infringer to cover legal fees and other costs associated with the lawsuit. It’s important to note that for the award of damages, the copyright owner must typically prove actual harm or loss resulting from the infringement.

Criminal Penalties:

Copyright infringement can also lead to criminal charges under Egyptian law, particularly in cases where the infringement is willful and for commercial gain. The penalties can be severe and may include imprisonment and/or fines. The duration of imprisonment and the amount of the fine vary depending on the nature and severity of the infringement. Repeated offenses or particularly egregious cases may lead to harsher sentences. The criminal prosecution of copyright infringement not only serves as a punishment but also as a deterrent to others who might consider infringing on intellectual property rights.


Courts in Egypt have the authority to issue injunctions against alleged infringers. An injunction is a court order that compels the infringer to cease their infringing activities immediately. This might include orders to stop the production, distribution, or sale of infringing materials. Injunctions are particularly important in copyright cases as they help prevent further damage to the copyright owner while the case is being resolved. In certain cases, the court may also order the seizure or destruction of infringing goods and materials.

Additional Measures:

In addition to these primary consequences, Egyptian law will also make mandatory the publication of the judgment in a newspaper at the expense of the infringer, which serves as a public acknowledgement of the infringement and helps deter future violations. The law also allows for border measures, including the suspension of release or detention of goods suspected of infringing intellectual property rights.


Copyright infringement is a significant issue in Egypt, as it is globally. Understanding the legal framework, identifying potential infringements, respecting intellectual property rights, and being aware of the consequences are vital steps in nurturing a creative and fair environment. Whether you’re a creator, consumer, or part of the creative industry, being informed about copyright laws helps protect your rights and fosters respect for the works of others. As Egypt continues to develop its creative industries, respecting and upholding copyright laws will be essential to ensuring a thriving cultural and economic future. 

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Written By

Joseph Iskander - Attorney-at-law

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