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Tax Residency in Egypt: Clarifying Residency Rules for Taxation

Tax residency in Egypt is a fundamental concept in the realm of taxation, determining an individual’s or entity’s tax obligations within a particular jurisdiction. In Egypt, tax residency is defined by specific criteria outlined in the Income Tax Law 91 of 2005 and its subsequent amendments. This article aims to elucidate the distinction between residents and non-residents for tax purposes in Egypt.

Resident Status:

In Egypt, an individual is typically deemed a resident for tax purposes if they meet one or more of the following conditions:

  • Permanent Residence: Possession of a permanent place of residence within Egypt serves as a clear indicator of tax residency.
  • Presence Duration: Residing in Egypt for more than 183 days within a 12-month period, whether continuously or intermittently, establishes tax residency. This criterion underscores an individual’s economic or personal ties to the country.
  • Egyptian Duties Abroad: Individuals conducting duties abroad as Egyptians, yet earning income from Egyptian sources, are also considered residents. This provision ensures that Egyptian nationals representing the country overseas remain subject to Egyptian tax laws.

Proof of residency status can be substantiated through documentation such as ownership or rental agreements for residential or commercial properties within Egypt.

It’s noteworthy that tax residency in Egypt is not contingent upon nationality. Therefore, foreign individuals staying in Egypt for more than 183 days within a year are also classified as residents, subject to the same tax obligations as Egyptian residents.

Legal Entity Residency:

For legal entities, residency in Egypt is determined based on the following criteria:

  • Establishment and Main Operations: Entities established under Egyptian law with their main administrative or operational centers located in Egypt are considered residents.
  • Ownership Structure: Entities with over 50% ownership by the state or a public legal entity are also classified as residents.

Additionally, specific conditions define Egypt as the primary administrative center for legal entities, including hosting management meetings, serving as the headquarters for decision-making, and housing a significant portion of the board of directors or managers.

Conversely, legal entities failing to meet these criteria are categorized as non-residents for tax purposes in Egypt.


In summary, tax residency in Egypt is determined by clear criteria outlined in the Income Tax Law. Residents are individuals who possess a permanent residence in Egypt, spend more than 183 days within the country in a year, or earn income from Egyptian sources while abroad. Foreign nationals residing in Egypt for over 183 days also fall under the resident category. Similarly, legal entities are considered residents if they are established under Egyptian law, maintain their main operational center in Egypt, and meet ownership criteria. Non-residents, on the other hand, do not meet these stipulated conditions and are thus subject to different tax obligations within Egypt. Understanding these distinctions is crucial for compliance with Egyptian tax laws and regulations.

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Written By

Ismaeel Mohamed - Senior Tax

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