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Egypt’s Natural Gas Sector: The Landscape of Regulatory Incentives

Egypt, recognized for its strategic geographical position bridging Africa and the Middle East, boasts significant natural gas reserves, ranking among the top in Africa. Egypt’s proven natural gas reserves are estimated to be around 58.5 trillion cubic feet. This wealth of natural resources positions Egypt as a pivotal player in the global energy market, inviting both domestic and international investment into its burgeoning natural gas sector. Egypt’s recent legal and regulatory reforms signal a commitment to attract and secure investments in natural gas.

Legal Framework Overview:

The legal landscape for natural gas in Egypt is primarily governed by the Oil and Gas Law, the Investment Law No. 72 of 2017, and their subsequent amendments and ministerial decrees. These laws and regulations form the cornerstone of the legal structure, defining the terms of engagement, rights, and responsibilities of all parties involved in the natural gas industry.

Investment Laws:

The Investment Law No. 72 of 2017 is a foundational statute providing a conducive environment for investments across various sectors, including natural gas. Notable sections of the law pertaining to natural gas investments include:

  • Article 11 (Guarantees and Incentives): This article lays out the general guarantees for investors, including the protection against confiscation and nationalization. It also assures the free transfer of profits and the right to exit projects.
  • Article 12 (Customs Duties and Tax Incentives): Outlines reduced customs duties and tax incentives for investment projects, particularly those contributing to natural gas in Egypt.
  • Article 19 (Land Allocation): Simplifies the procedures for land allocation, critical for exploration and extraction activities in the natural gas sector.

Natural Gas in Egypt – Incentives:

The Egyptian government, recognizing the strategic importance of the natural gas sector, offers specific incentives under various regulatory frameworks:

  • Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) (Regulated under the Oil and Gas Law): Egypt’s model of PSAs provides a balanced and investor-friendly approach. Investors are allowed cost recovery for exploration and production, with profits shared with the government under agreed terms.
  • Fast-Track Approvals (Ministerial Decrees): Strategic natural gas projects benefit from streamlined approval processes, allowing for a quicker start to exploration and production activities.
  • Support for Infrastructure Development (Various Ministerial Decrees): The government often provides incentives or support for the development of critical infrastructure, such as pipelines and liquefaction facilities, essential for the natural gas industry.

Challenges and Considerations:

While the legal and regulatory framework is designed to be attractive to investors, challenges such as bureaucratic processes, regulatory changes, and market volatility remain. Investors need to conduct thorough due diligence and remain agile in response to the dynamic legal and economic landscape. However, seeking professional support from Andersen Egypt’s attorneys, tax specialists, and financial advisors is an effective and straightforward avenue towards mitigating any risks associated with regulatory instability and volatility.


Egypt’s substantial natural gas reserves and the government’s commitment to creating an attractive investment climate through legal reforms signal a promising future for the sector. However, success in this market requires not only an understanding of the legal framework and incentives but also a strategic approach to navigating the complexities and leveraging the opportunities presented by Egypt’s natural gas industry.

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Written By

Joseph Iskander - Attorney-at-law

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